Congenital hip disorders, also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) or congenital hip dysplasia, refer to a group of conditions affecting the hip joint in infants and young children. These disorders involve abnormal development or alignment of the hip joint and can result in a range of problems, including instability, dislocation, or misalignment of the hip joint. Here are some common congenital hip disorders:
- Hip Dysplasia - This is a condition in which the hip joint is not properly aligned, leading to instability and potential dislocation. It occurs when the hip socket is shallow or poorly formed, allowing the femoral head (ball-shaped top of the thigh bone) to slip out of the socket partially or completely.
- Hip Subluxation - This refers to a partial dislocation of the hip joint where the femoral head is not fully seated within the hip socket. The hip may be unstable and may slide partially out of the socket during movement.
- Hip Dislocation - In this condition, the femoral head completely slips out of the hip socket. It is more severe than subluxation and requires immediate medical attention.
- Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease - This is a condition that affects the blood supply to the femoral head, leading to the death of bone tissue in the hip joint. It commonly affects children between the ages of 4 and 8 and can result in hip joint deformity and limited range of motion.
- Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) - SCFE occurs when the growth plate at the top of the femur (thigh bone) slips, causing the head of the femur to move out of alignment with the hip socket. It commonly occurs during periods of rapid growth in adolescents and can lead to hip joint instability and pain.
The diagnosis of congenital hip disorders typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or X-ray), and sometimes additional tests like MRI or CT scans. Treatment options depend on the specific disorder and its severity. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with non-surgical interventions like the use of a brace or harness to maintain proper hip position. More severe cases may require surgical interventions, such as closed reduction (manually repositioning the hip joint) or open surgery to correct the alignment of the hip joint.
It is essential to note that early detection and treatment of congenital hip disorders are crucial for optimal outcomes. Regular check-ups and monitoring of hip development in infants and young children can help identify any abnormalities early on. If you suspect your child may have a hip disorder, Dr. Rajesh Malhotra, a reputed orthopaedic surgeon, will help you with the right treatment plan.