Partial knee replacement, also known as unicompartmental knee replacement, is a type of surgical procedure to treat severe knee arthritis when only a portion of the knee joint is affected. This procedure aims to replace the damaged part of the knee with an artificial implant, restoring function and alleviating pain.
During a partial knee replacement, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the affected compartment of the knee joint and replaces it with a prosthetic component. This component consists of metal and plastic parts that mimic the natural anatomy of the knee joint and provide stability and mobility.
Robotic technology has revolutionised the field of orthopaedic surgery, and it is now commonly used in partial knee replacements. Robotic-assisted partial knee replacement utilises advanced computer systems and robotic arms to assist the surgeon in precise planning and execution of the procedure.
The process begins with preoperative imaging, such as a CT scan, which provides detailed 3D images of the patient's knee joint. These images are used to create a virtual model of the knee, allowing the surgeon to assess the damage and plan the optimal placement of the implant. During the surgery, the surgeon uses a robotic arm system that is controlled by the surgeon. This system provides real-time feedback and assists in precise bone preparation and implant positioning. The robotic arm is guided by the surgeon's movements and helps ensure accuracy and consistency in the procedure.
One of the key advantages of robotic-assisted partial knee replacement is its ability to preserve healthy bone and tissue. With the assistance of the robotic system, the surgeon can precisely remove only the damaged portions of the knee, leaving healthy tissue intact. This preservation of healthy bone and tissue can result in improved knee function, faster recovery, and a more natural-feeling knee after surgery.
Additionally, the robotic system enhances the surgeon's ability to align and position the implant with great precision. Accurate alignment is crucial for optimal function and longevity of the implant. By using robotic assistance, the surgeon can achieve better implant placement and alignment, reducing the risk of implant failure and revision surgeries.
The benefits of robotic-assisted partial knee replacement include smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery compared to traditional open surgery. Patients typically experience less postoperative pain and can return to their normal activities sooner.
It is important to note that not all patients are suitable candidates for robotic-assisted partial knee replacement. Factors such as the extent of knee damage, overall health, and the surgeon's judgement determine the suitability of this procedure for an individual patient.